Resource Analysis Services
Environmental Planning services offered by Kamiak Environmental, LLC, address a broad range of planning needs using a variety of assessment tools. Our services include programmatic planning, FEMA Hazard Mitigation Planning for Indian Tribes, States, and Counties, resource planning, Environmental Assessments, Environmental Impact Statements, biologic opinions, baseline analysis, and much more. We deliver to you efficient and results-oriented planning sessions to meet your needs.
Resource Analysis Services
- Endagered Species Assessments
- Welands Analysis
- Hydrologic Analysis
- Watershed and other natural Resource Management Plans
- Vegetation Mapping
- Forest Management Planning
- Timber Volume Mapping
- Wildlife & Fisheries Habitat Analysis and Reporting
In order to accomplish environmental resource analysis projects, we utilize analysis tools including field assessments & sampling, integrated planning committee collaboration, geospatial analysis, and econometrics. Planning projects involve integrated interactions with our clientele through team meetings, planning committee meetings, and strategic planning sessions. Our staff completes field data collection and integrates data collected by our clients and others, with detailed measurements of resource components (e.g., wildlife usage areas, plant species presence and coverage, soil mapping, wetlands extent, improvements, habitat suitability, and wildlife and fisheries usage).
Here are some examples of the projects we have implemented for clients, showing how resource characteristics were combined with scientific analyses, to reveal management opportunities.
Pacific Lamprey Habitat Suitability
This analysis was conducted to assess usable spawning and rearing habitat for Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus, formerly Lampetra tridentata) in Asotin Creek, Washington, a tributary to the Snake River. This analysis used an explicit geospatial model to quantify and qualify suitable habitat characteristics. Characteristics of usable habitat for Pacific lamprey were determined from a review of published literature for multiple species of lamprey, and through the assessment of juvenile Pacific lamprey in Asotin Creek during electrofishing surveys. All site visits were positionally recorded using Global Position System location recorders.
Geospatial data assembled for this project were analyzed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT ver 2005) through an interface of the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Tool (ver 2.0) within ESRI ArcMap/ArcINFO (ver. 9.3.1). These data and analyses tools provided estimated discharge for ungauged streams, sedimentation, siltation and nutrient rates, stream bed structure, geologic parent materials, and other components. These data were combined with habitat projections derived from existing geospatial data, spatial modeling results, and field observations. The analysis resulted in a combination of databases showing critical habitat features, maps showing the juxtaposition of favorable habitat within the Asotin Creek watershed, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, and incorporated physical barriers to Pacific lamprey upstream passage.
SWAT software was used to predict the effects of management decisions on water, sediment, and nutrient yields. The SWAT model analysis was conducted using historical daily weather data (75 years), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil survey data, US Geological Service (USGS) digital elevation model data (10 meter resolution), and vegetative cover to predict stream reach characteristics (width, depth, and velocity), sedimentation (and source contribution areas), surface runoff, return flow, percolation, evapotranspiration, transmission losses, reach routing, nutrient loading, and water transfer. Results were combined with gauged river basin data to calibrate the model.
Although several potential threats hinder the Pacific lamprey during its life cycle, this effort has concentrated on the portion of the Pacific lamprey’s life cycle spent in the freshwater river network of Asotin Creek and the environmental characteristics consistent with ensuring their health and viability.
We have identified suitable habitat for adult Pacific lamprey spawning and aestivation sites within the main channel of Asotin Creek. Unsuitable habitat was identified within George Creek and all of its sub-basin tributaries. One physical barrier, the headgate dam, to adult Pacific lamprey passage has been identified near river kilometer marker 15, and should be considered for either removal or the placement of a lamprey ladder to facilitate upstream passage.
Central Council Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska: Forest Volumetric Analysis using Remote Sensing
Tribal Allotments in Southeast Alaska are scattered over 39 million acres of southeast Alaska intermixed with USFS managed lands, State lands, private lands, and forest industry holdings. Most sites are accessible by boat only, and forest inventory data is non-existent on most of the parcels. The Central Council and the BIA wished to develop forest management standards to suit the needs of allotment holders and sustainable resource values for the Tribes.
Forest inventory data about each allotment was needed in order to accomplish both short-term and long-term goals. During the 2007 Intertribal Timber Council meeting in Polson, Montana, Randy Henry, of CCTHITA attended a session taught by Dr. William Schlosser, about Kriging and Variography used to make forest volumetric interpretations of forestlands over large areas using plot data, GIS-based resource information, and satellite imagery.
Kamiak Geospatial, the BIA, and the Central Council discussed the work plan and the needed outputs, then launched into an inventory analysis effort beginning in July 2008 and ending in December 2008.
The result was the creation of imagery from the LANDSAT satellite covering all of Southeast Alaska in 9 reflectance bands (including visible ‘aerial imagery-like’ scenes). These bands were combined with forest inventory plots to create ‘control’ points where satellite imagery could be combined with soil type, slope, elevation, and distance from streams, to estimate standing volume of timber by species. Extensive site data was used to ‘train the imagery’ by integrating over ¼ million tree records from USFS point sampling over a 20 year period. These databases were imported into the Landscape Management System 3.1 for volumetric analysis from inventory date (1980-2006) to current time (2008) using Forest Vegetation Simulator (SE Alaska variant).
Species composition, total volume, Crown Competition Factor (CCF), and rate of growth were exported to Access databases by plot and added to the attributes of the plot centers (potential dependent variables). These were processed through a Kriging (Kriging is group of geo-statistical techniques to interpolate the value of a random field at an unobserved location from observations at nearby locations) and Variography Analysis to express Timber Volume (and other site characteristics) on a pixel basis (30m), then summarize by stand, acre, or other area-based criteria.
- Timber Volume by Species Predictions for each allotment
- Total BF Volume (SE +/- 17%)
- Species Composition for Hemlock & Spruce (SE +/- 25%)
- Satellite imagery in color and IR mosaics for most of SE Alaska
- Shreve Stream Order network for SE Alaska
- A USGS generated soil layer in GIS linked to Site Index (Farr) by Kamiak Geospatial
- USFS Plot data linked to locations (~36,000)
The slideshow accompanying this project was given at a BIA conference in Shelton, Washington in 2009.
Plummer Creek Watershed Nutrient Management Plan Analysis
Completed in April 2009, this project was conducted in a cooperative effort of Kamiak Environmental, LLC, and TerraGraphics Environmental Engineering, Inc., for the Coeur d’Alene Tribe. Kamiak Ridge conducted the physical site attributes of the watershed analysis, nutrient contributions from soils, and estimated historic and potential future nutrient cycling to compare with the current site characteristics. These tools were integrated into GIS mapping results and tabular data for management recommendation purposes.
The purpose of the Plummer Creek Watershed Nutrient Management Plan was to characterize the nutrient loading sources in the watershed and to identify target areas and land uses for nutrient and sediment loading reductions. Previous studies have documented dissolved oxygen concentrations violating Tribal and State water quality standards and high phosphorus levels (<5 µg/L to 88 µg/L) in the impounded area of the St. Joe River and its lateral lakes including Chatcolet Lake. Possible sources of the oxygen-demanding materials and high nutrient concentrations in Chatcolet Lake have been identified as adjacent tributaries, including Plummer Creek. The Plummer Creek Nutrient Management Plan will allow the Coeur d’Alene Tribe to update the current understanding of nutrient loading sources within the watershed and to delineate appropriate nutrient loading controls in the form of prescribing Best Management Practices (BMPs) for targeted subwatersheds and their land uses.
Kamiak Environmental, LLC, derived a computerized spatial model of the Plummer Creek Watershed to aid in the determination of current loading and to identify relative reduction targets and target areas within the watershed for water quality improvement projects. The model includes characterization of land uses within the watershed and focuses on non-point sources of nutrient loading to Plummer Creek and Little Plummer Creek.
The Plummer Creek watershed has a drainage area of approximately 111.0 square kilometers (km2; equivalent to 42.9 square miles) and drains to Chatcolet Lake (and thus to Coeur d'Alene Lake). The watershed is located in Benewah County and Kootenai County, Idaho, as well as in the central portion of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. It includes two streams: Plummer Creek which is approximately 13.2 kilometer (km; equivalent to 8.2 miles) long, and Little Plummer Creek which is approximately 14.2 km (8.8 miles) long (Coeur d’Alene Tribe, 2009). The confluence of Little Plummer Creek and the mainstem of Plummer Creek is located approximately 3.7 km (2.3 miles) upstream of the mouth where Plummer Creek discharges to Chatcolet Lake. Elevations in the watershed range from approximately 649 meters (2,129 feet) at the mouth to 1,263 meters (4,144 feet) at Plummer Butte. General vegetation types in the watershed include approximately 85.1 km2 (32.9 square miles) of woods/forest or shrubs (76.1%), 18.8 km2 (7.26 square miles) cultivated wheat and bluegrass production (16.8 %), 5.3 km2 (2.0 square miles) of grasslands (4.7%), and 2.7 km2 (1.0 square mile) of developed land (2.4%).
The City of Plummer is located within the Plummer Creek Watershed, within the western uplands of the drainage. This community is home to approximately 980 people living in roughly 380 households (Census 2009). Plummer is also the location of the Coeur d’Alene Tribal Headquarters and the Bureau of Indian Affairs offices. The City of Plummer is bisected by State Highway 95 running in a general north/south trajectory.
Kamiak Environmental used several geospatial analysis tools bound within the ArcGIS (ArcINFO) framework to complete these analyses, including the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA), spatial analyst, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Shreve Stream Layer analysis tools, and combined them with onsite observations and analyses to derive the results used for this Nutrient Management Plan.